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How to Prevent Osteoporosis

Author:Dr.Sunny Kim

Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease that is prone to fracture due to loss or decrease of bone mass, destruction of bone tissue and increase of bone fragility.


Age of onset 

The incidence of osteoporosis is closely related to age. In 2016, the prevalence rate of osteoporosis in the elderly over 60 years old in China was 36%, among which the incidence rate was 23% for males and 49% for females. Fracture is a serious consequence of osteoporosis.

Type of osteoporosis

1.Primary osteoporosis

(1) Postmenopausal osteoporosis: It mainly occurs in women within 5 to 10 years after menopause.Due to the decrease of estrogen level in postmenopausal women, osteoclasts cannot be effectively inhibited, resulting in rapid decomposition and absorption of bone cells, decreased bone mass and accelerated loss, and increased bone gaps, resulting in the formation of osteoporosis.

(2) Senile osteoporosis: It generally refers to osteoporosis that occurs after age 70. The elderly due to reduced sex hormones, stimulate the osteoclast, inhibit the osteoblasts, resulting in reduced bone volume.

(3) Idiopathic osteoporosis: mainly occurs in adolescents. The etiology is still unclear, and may be related to abnormal regulation of bone metabolism or abnormal calcium metabolism.

2. Secondary osteoporosisIt is often caused by endocrine and metabolic diseases (such as hyperthyroidism), and can also be induced by the effect of hormones and other drugs on bone metabolism.

Inducing Factor

- Smoking, drinking too much alcohol and drinking too many caffeinated beverages.

-  Bedridden for a long time and less physical activity.

-  Less sun exposure, calcium deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, high sodium diet.


Because osteoporosis often has no obvious symptoms, it is easy to be ignored, but with the progress of the disease, the constant loss of bone, bone structure changes, resulting in bone pain, easy fracture and other problems.It is recommended that people over 40 years old have regular bone mineral density testing to prevent the occurrence and development of osteoporosis.


Bone health supplements

Calcium - Adequate calcium intake slows bone loss and maintains healthy bones.The recommended daily intake of calcium is 800mg for adults and 1,000 to 1,200 mg for people over 50 years of age. It is recommended to supplement calcium through the diet as much as possible, and if dietary calcium intake is insufficient, calcium supplements should be given.

Vitamin D - increases calcium absorption.A combination of calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of falls and osteoporotic fractures.Postmenopausal women, people with low sun exposure, and the elderly are among those at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. For high-risk groups, vitamin D levels should be tested to understand their nutritional status, and supplementation should be guided according to the situation.


Medical treatment

For patients diagnosed with osteoporosis by bone mineral density examination, who have already had a brittle fracture, or who have reduced bone mass and are at high risk of fracture, medication is recommended to increase bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk. These include drugs that inhibit osteoclasts, such as bisphosphonates, and drugs that inhibit bone resorption, such as calcitonin.

Daily life management

Pay attention to calcium, protein, vitamin D intake.

- Plenty of sun exposure.

- Appropriate weight bearing exercise and resistance exercise. 

Osteoporosis is not taken seriously because its symptoms are not obvious, but its harm to the body should not be ignored. Osteoporosis can be prevented as well as treated, so regular check-ups and early detection and treatment are key.